Tumour regression

Shrinkage or disappearance of a palpable neoplasm, temporary or long lasting.

Tumour remission

Improvement of a neoplasm of hematopoetic origin, temporary or long lasting.

Spontaneous regression


“Pathogen recognition receptor ligands", substances from pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, worms) not found in pathogen hosts, which act as danger signals for the innate immune system and can activate dendritic cells to complement a full blown immune response.


“Pattern associated molecular pattern”, PRRL binding to a particular class of receptors, so-called Toll-like receptors.

Innate immune system

Evolutionary older part of the immune system acting fast but unspecific against pathogen invasion, can provide signals necessary for a full blown reaction of the adaptive immune system.

Adaptive immune system

Part of the immune system allowing adaptive responses like antibodies and specific T-cells, provides immunologic memory.

Th1 / Th2 - immune response

Adaptive immune responses require involvement of so-called T-helper lymphocytes. These were originally divided into two subsets. Th1 cells activate macrophages and CD8-cells (cellular immunity) while Th2 cells activate B-cells for antibody production (humoral immunity). This coarse classification is under refinement involving other subtypes like Th9, Th17 and Treg.

 (C) Uwe Hobohm